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          開放選修:2020年秋“國際法的理論與實踐”課程:國際造法的若幹問題

          授課教師:村濑信也教授
           
          課程簡介
          本課程將從介紹國際法淵源的基本理論、國際法在國內的執行方式和國際法委員會的基本情況等基礎知識出發,重點結合國際法委員會目前正在進行的多項議題,以闡明國際法的編纂和逐漸發展的過程。
           
          課程時間
          2020923- 1230
          每周三晚 18:40 - 20:30
           
          授課方式
          騰訊會議線上授課
           
          課程注冊
          課程開放校內外師生選修和旁聽。本校同學可在選課系統中選修《國際法的理論與實踐》(課程號:029115902學分)。課程對校外同學無學分。
          本課程的授課形式包括:教師主講、學生課堂展示以及課堂討論。
          課程報名請聯系課程助教馮麗羽,截止日期爲918日,報名郵箱:intlawmaking2020@163.com。請注明姓名、機構、電話、郵箱地址,每次課前會發送騰訊會議鏈接及課程材料。
           
          主講人簡介
          村濑信也,日本上智大學榮休國際法教授、國際法研究院院士、聯合國國際法委員會現任委員和“大氣層保護”專題的特別報告員。2014-2017年间曾担任中国青年政治学院(现中国社会科学院大学)訪問教授,201711-201912月任178国际娱乐訪問教授。2018年起兼任178国际娱乐全球教席教授。
          村濑教授是东京大学法學博士(1972)、哈佛大學法學院訪問學者(1974-1976)、哥伦比亚大学法学院訪問教授(1995)。其曾任聯合國法律事務廳法律顧問(1980-1982)、亞洲開發銀行行政法庭法官(1998-2004)、聯合國國際法委員會委員(2009至今)、海牙常設仲裁法院仲裁員(2013至今),並于2011年入選國際法研究院副院士、2017年入選院士,是當今國際法學界公認的國際法大家,在國際法基本理論、國際環境法等領域有深厚造詣。
           
          課程大綱
          第一周(923日)
          “傳染病與國際法”講座
          第二周(930日)
          課程導引、國際法淵源
          第三周(1014日)
          司法中的法律淵源:國際法院適用的法律
          第四周(1021日)
          國際法在國內法和國內法院中的實施、中國對國際法的適用
          第五周(1028日)
          國際造法基礎
          第六周(114日)
          國際法委員會(ILC)概覽、對國際法的編纂和逐漸發展
          第七周(1111日)
          ILC專題(1):習慣國際法的識別
          第八周(1118日)
          ILC專題(2):條約解釋中的嗣後協定與嗣後實踐
          第九周(1125日)
          ILC專題(3):國際法中的強行法
          第十周(122日)
          ILC專題(4):條約的臨時適用、ILC專題(5):一般法律原則
          第十一周(129日)
          ILC專題(6):災難中的個人保護
          第十二周(1216日)
          ILC專題(7):危害人類罪、ILC專題(8):國家官員對外國刑事司法管轄的豁免
          第十三周(1223日)
          ILC專題(9):武裝沖突中的環境保護
          第十四周(1230日)
          ILC專題(10):大氣層的保護
           
           
          International Lawmaking
          Selected Problems
          Syllabus
          (Wednesdays, 18:40 -20:30: On-line)
          23 September 2020 - 30 December 2020
          Professor: Dr. Shinya Murase
          Professor Emeritus, Sophia University, Tokyo; Visiting Professor at PKU; Member of the UN International Law Commission; Member of l’Institut de droit international
          This course is given in English. [The content and the order of lectures are subject to change.]
           
          Basic Reading Material:
          (1) 村瀬信也『国際立法―国際法的法源論』(秦一禾訳)中国人民公安大学出版社、2012年 (Get a UBS copy from TA) (参照:陳一峰「国際造法問題的理論再造:評?村瀬信也『国際立法—国際法的法源論』」中国社会科学院国際法研究所『国際法研究』(2014.01) pp.122-128)
          (2) S. Murase, International Law:An Integrative Perspective on Transboundary Issues, Sophia University Press, 2011. (Get a UBS copy from TA)
          (3) For Documents of the UN International Law Commission, see: http://legal.un.org/ilc/index.shtml 
          (4) For ICJ judgments and advisory opinions, see:http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/index.php?p1=3
          (5) For PCA decisions, see: http://www.pca-cpa.org
          (6) For ITLOS decisions, see: https://www.itlos.org
          (7) Collection of treaties and judicial decisions, as necessary.
           
          Special Lecture: Epidemics and International Law (Wednesday, 23 September)
          Basic Reading: Shinya Murase, “Epidemics and International Law” (manuscript)
          To register: intlawmaking2020@163.com
           
          PART ONE: Sources of International Law
           
          Introduction  (Wednesday, 30 September)
          (1) Life of Shinya Murase in brief: How I became an international lawyer.
          (2) Integrating Theory and Practice in international law (consistency matters!)
          (3) The Purpose of the study on the sources of international law
          For what do we study the Sources of international law?: Filling the gaps (lacuna) in international law through “interpretation” of lex lata (law as it exists)
          (4) International lawmaking for lex ferenda (law as it ought to be)
          Readings: S. Murase, “International Law as a Profession” (Statement at the 50th ILC International Law Seminar, July 2014) 
          (1) Chap.1, Sec 2; The Lotus (PCIJ 1927); Nuclear Weapon (ICJ 1996); Kosovo’s Unilateral Declaration of Independence (2010)
          Questions to be discussed
          (1) What is the Role of “Theories” in the Practice of International Law?
          (2) Differentiation between Interpretation and Lawmaking
           
          Sources of International Law
          (1) Different Meanings of “Sources”
          (2) Material and Formal Sources: Dialectic Relationship between the two.
          (3) Treaties and Customary International Law, and their Interrelationship
          (4) “Hard” Law and “Soft” Law
          (5) From Sources of International Law to International Lawmaking
          Readings: (1) Chap.1, Sec.1; Asylum (ICJ 1950), North Sea Continental Shelf (ICJ 1969)
          Questions to be discussed
          (1) Are There Any Other Sources of International Law that should be considered?
          (2) What is the meaning of the study on the Sources of International Law?
          (3) What is the role of “Sources” in the dispute Settlement Process?
          (7 October is a holiday in China.)
           
          Judicial Sources: Applicable Law of ICJ  (Wednesday, 14 October)
          Article 38 (1) of the Statute of ICJ:
          a.  international conventions; 
          b.  international custom; 
          c.  the general principles of law; 
          d.  judicial decisions and the teachings of the most highly qualified publicists of the various nations, as subsidiary means for the determination of rules of lawReadings: (1) Chap.2, Sec.1; Stefan Talmon, “ICJ and Customary International Law”
          Relevant cases: North Sea Continental Shelf (1969); Tunisia v. Libya Cont. Shelf case (ICJ 1982)
          Questions to be discussed
          (1) Norm-creating Character of Treaties?
          (2) How many States’ consent do we need for ascertaining Customary Law?
          (3) How many years do we need for a Customary Norm to be created?
            
           
          Article 38 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties
          (1) Article 38 as an exception to pacta tertiis rule
          (2) Meaning of the phrase “recognized as such” in Article 38
          Relevant case: Obligation to Prosecute or Extradite (Belgium v. Senegal) ICJ 2012.
          Readings: (1) Chap.2, Sec.2
          Other Sources:
          Soft Law
          Unilateral Measures based on domestic law: Opposability
          Relevant Cases: Fisheries Jurisdiction case (UK v. Iceland, ICJ 1974)
           
          Implementation of International Law by Domestic Law and Courts  (Wednesday, 21 October)
          (1) Relationship between International Law and Domestic Law
          a. Monism (supremacy of domestic law v. supremacy of international law)
          b. Dualism
          c. Theory of coordination
          (2) Adoption of Treaties into Domestic Law
          a. Incorporation
          b. Transformation
          (3) Adoption of Customary International Law into Domestic Law
          a. Incorporation
          b. Transformation
          (4) “Legal effect” v. “Applicability” of international law in domestic law (courts)
          “Self-Executing” treaties and customary international law
          Relevant case: Kokaryo (Guanghualiao) Dormitory Case
          Readings: (1) Chap.2, Sec.3; Murase, International Law (English), Chap. 14, pp. 377-387. (2) T. Kitamura, “Japanese Supreme Court Judgment in the so-called ‘Kokaryo’ Case”, Chinese Journal of International Law, vol.7 (3), 2008, pp. 713-720. http://chinesejil.oxfordjournals.org/content/7/3/713.full?sid=155d67f0-27b2-48e7-bced-dee0cfe80c32; (3) Nisuke Ando, “The Khoka-Ryo Case and International Law: A Critique of the Japanese Supreme Court Decision,” Japanese Yearbook of International Law, Vol. 53 (2010) pp. 1-18.
          Questions to be discussed:
          What are customary international rules to determine the relevant issues such as the status of the “de-recognized State”? Assuming that the dormitory belongs to China, how can she make a legal claim under international law? Could we go to ICJ?
           
          China’s system regarding adoption of international law
          (1) Monism/Dualism?; Adoption or Transformation?
          (2) Treaty-making power in China? Recognition of customary international law?
          (3) Domestic law effect and applicability of treaties and customary international law?
          Reading material: Congyan Cai, “International Law in Chinese Courts during the Rise of China”, American Journal of International Law, Vol. 110, 2016, pp. 269-288; Li Zhaojie, “Effect of Treaties in Domestic Law: Practice of the People's Republic of China”, 16 Dalhousie L.J. 62-97 (1993)
           
          PART TWO: International Law Commission
           
          Basis of the International Lawmaking  (Wednesday, 28 October)
          (1) History of International Lawmaking
          (2) The Hague Peace Conferences of 1899 and 1907
          (3) International Lawmaking under the League of Nations
          (4) International Lawmaking under the United Nations
          (5) UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982)
          (6) A Future Convention on the Law of the Atmosphere?
          (7) One Belt, One Road
          Readings: Chap.3, Sec.1; Murase, An Observation on China’s Initiative of One Belt, One Road (manuscript)  
            
          Overview of the International Law Commission (ILC)  (Wednesday, 4 November)
          (1) History
          (2) Membership
          (3) Topic Selection
          (4) Drafting, Adoption, Post-adoption Process
          Readings: Chap.3, Sec.2; C. Tomschat, “International Law Commission: An Outdated Institution?”, German Yearbook of International Law, vol. 49 (2006), pp. 77-105; S. Murase, “Comments on the Working Method of the Commission,” ILC 70th Anniversary Workshop, July 2018, Geneva (manuscript).
          Questions to be discussed
          (1) Do we still need ILC today? Any “reason d’être”?
          (2) Any Need for Reform?
           
          Codification and Progressive Development of International Law
          Reading: Donald McRae, “Interrelationship of Codification and Progressive Development in the Work of the International Law Commission,” Kokusaiho Gaiko Zassi (The Journal of International Law and Diplomacy), Vol. 111, No. 4, 2013, pp. 75-94.
           
          ILC Topic (1): Identification of Customary International Law  (Wednesday, 11 November)
          (1) Background of the topic
          (2) Definition and Constituent Elements of Customary International Law
          (3) Usefulness of the topic
          Readings: ILC Report 2016, Chapter V; Official Records of the General Assembly at its Seventy-third Session, Supplement No. 10(A/73/10), Report of the International Law Commission, Seventieth session, 2018, (ILC Report 2018), Chapter V, pp. 117-156.  Murase’s comments in 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2018 https://s-murase.blog/2019/11/17/murase-comments-on-customary-international-law-at-ilc-2012-2018/;
          ILA London Statement on the Formation of Customary International Law, 2000, Conference Report London 2000.pdf.; Stefan Talmon, “Determining Customary International Law: The ICJ’s Methodology and the Idyllic World of the ILC,” EJIL Talk!, 3 Dec. 2015. http://www.ejiltalk.org/ determining-customary-international-law-the-icjs-methodology-and-the-idyllic-world-of-the- ilc/.
          Roberto Ago, “Positive Law and International Law”, American Journal of International Law, Vol. 51, No. 4, 1957, pp. 691-733; Ditto, “Science juridique et droit international”, Recueil des cours, Vol. 90, 1956, p. 849, pp. 928-940; Maurice H. Mendelson, “Formation of International Law and the Observational Standpoint”, (Appendix to the First Report of the International Committee on the Formation of Rules of Customary International Law), in ILA, Report of the 63rd Conference(Warsaw, 1988), p. 941; Maurice H. Mendelson, “The Formation of Customary International Law”, Recueil des cours, Vol. 272, 1998, pp. 157-410; Michael Reisman, “International Incidents: Introduction to a New Genre in the Study of International Law”, The Yale Journal of International Law, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1984, pp. 1-20. Questions to be discussed
          (1) Usefulness of the topic
          (2) Methodology
          (3) Final form: Conclusions
             
          ILC Topic (2): Subsequent Agreement and Subsequent Practice in Treaty Interpretation  (Wednesday, 18 November)
          (1) Background of the topic
          (2) Identification of Subsequent Agreements and Practice
          (3) Evolutionary Interpretation
          Readings: Official Records of the General Assembly at its Seventy-third Session, Supplement No. 10(A/73/10), Report of the International Law Commission, Seventieth session, 2018, (ILC Report 2018), Chapter IV, pp. 11-116; Murase’s comments 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2018; Murase’s paper on the “Pathology of Evolutionary Interpretation”;
          Relevant Judicial Cases
          Questions to be discussed
          (1) Usefulness of the topic
          (2) Assessment of Evolutionary Interpretation
          (3) Final form: Conclusions
             
          ILC Topic (3): Peremptory Norms (Jus Cogens) of International Law  (Wednesday, 25 November)
          (1) Are there really jus cogens norms in international law?
          (2) Jus Cogens in the Law of Treaties and Law of State Responsibility
          (3) Examples of jus cogens norms
          Readings: ILC Report, 2019, Chapter V), pp. 141-208. Murase’s comments
          https://s-murase.blog/2019/11/17/murase-comments-on-jus-cogens-at-ilc-2016-2019/
          Questions to be discussed
          (1) Does international law have a hierarchy?
          (2) Does Jus Cogens have the same meaning in the Law of treaties and in the Law of State Responsibility?
          (3) Final form: Conclusions
           
          ILC Topic (4): Provisional Application of Treaties (Wednesday, 2 December)
          (1) Background of the topic
          (2) Usefulness of the topic
          Readings: ILC Report 2018, Chapter V; Murase’s comments in 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2018. Yukos Universal Limited (Isle of Man) v. The Russian Federation, UNCITRAL, PCA Case No. AA 227 https://pca-cpa.org/en/cases/61/
          Questions to be discussed
          (1) Usefulness of the topic
          (2) Domestic Constitutions on Ratification
           
          ILC Topic (5): General Principles of Law
          Readings: ILC Report 2019, Chapter IX, pp.329-339; Murase’s comments in 2019, https://s-murase.blog/2019/11/17/murase-comments-on-general-principles-of-law-2019/
           
          ILC Topic (6): Protection of Persons in the Eventof Disasters  (Wednesday, 9 December)
          (1) Background of the topic
          (2) Usefulness of the topic
          Readings: ILC Report 2016, Chapter IV; Murase’s comments in 2011, 2012, 2013 2014 and 2015;
          Questions to be discussed
          (1) Responsibility to protect (R2P)?
          (2) How can we make the topic more useful? How do you think of the idea of elaborating a Model SOFA for Relief Activities?
           
          ILC Topic (7): Crime against Humanity  (Wednesday, 16 December)
          (1) Background of the topic
          (2) Is there a need for this topic in view of the fact that the ICC Statute already covers this crime?
          (3) Policy elements (widespread and systematic attacks)
          (4) Legal persons’ responsibility
          (5) Definition of Gender and LGBT
          Readings: ILC Report 2017, Chapter IV; Murase’s comments in 2015, 2016 and 2017.
           
          ILC Topic (8): Immunity of State Officials from Foreign Criminal Jurisdiction
          (1) Background of the topic
          (2) Immunity ratione personae
          (3) Immunity ratione materiae
          (4) Exceptions to Immunity
          Readings: Special Rapporteur’s Fifth Report; ILC Report 2017, Chapter VII; Murase’s comments 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018; Pinochet Case (House of Lords, UK); Arrest Warrant Case (ICJ, 2001)
          Questions to be discussed
          (1) Is it proper for the ILC to grant immunity to those members of the Troika who have committed serious international crimes?
          (2) Compare Article 27 of the ICC Statute with ILC Draft Articles.
          (3) Draft Article 7 on Exceptions to Immunity (pro or con?)
           
          ILC Topic (9): Protection of the Environment in relation to Armed Conflict  (Wednesday, 23 December)
          (1) Relationship between Law of Armed Conflict (jus in bello) and IEL
          (2) Provisions of ENMOD Convention and Additional Protocols
          (3) The Notion of “Long-term, Widespread and Significant” Harm
          Readings: ILC Report 2019, Chapter VI, pp. 209-296.
           
          ILC Topic (10): Protection of the Atmosphere (Wednesday, 30 December)
          (1) Inclusion of the topic
          (2) Definition of the Atmosphere
          (3) Scope of the topic
          (4) Basic principles: Obligation of States, Sustainable and Equitable Utilization of the Atmosphere; Geo-engineering
          (5) International Cooperation
          (6) Interrelationships with other fields of international law
           (7) Implementation. Compliance and Dispute Settlement
          Readings: ILC Report 2018, Chapter VI, pp. 157-200.
          Questions to be discussed
          (1) Is protection of the atmosphere a “common concern of humankind”?
          (2) Is there any need for a comprehensive framework convention?]
           
           
           
           
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          2020年9月1日